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ATT00010 Life is very short, so break your silly ego, forgive quickly, believe slowly, love truly, laugh loudly & never avoid anything that makes you smile. Have a beautiful day !!! by JIBI

Tenses

A. Four facts about tense that you should know:

1. Tense and time are not the same.

The word tense refers to the forms of verbs in certain languages (including English of course, but many languages do not have tense). The word time is far more difficult to define, but we all experience it. Time is what we measure with clocks, watches, and calendars, for example.

2. Tense and time are related, but it is not a simple (one-to-one) relationship.

That is, present tense does not always mean present time; past tense does not always mean past time. The following simple present tense sentence does not refer to the present time (unless you happen to be reading this very early in the morning):

The sun rises in the east.

In fact, the relationship between tense and time is quite complex. A past tense verb, for example, can refer to a future time:

If I had an exam tomorrow, I would study tonight.

3. It is impossible to completely describe the English system of tenses in a few pages.

English, like all human languages, is extremely complex and almost infinitely flexible. And, as you probably know, nearly every rule about language has many exceptions. Below you will find descriptions of the major English tenses (predicate verb forms). I’ve tried to give you some basic information about the forms and meanings of the twelve traditional tenses. While I believe everything that follows is correct, I know it is not complete.

4. English has only two true tenses: present & past.

Everything else that is usually referred to as tense is really a combination of tense, aspect (continuous, perfect), and/or modality. I will follow the traditional practice and refer to all of these combinations as tenses. However, if you examine these verb forms carefully, you will see that every one contains either present tense, past tense, or a modal auxiliary.

B. The twelve traditional tenses: All examples below are active; see Passive Sentences for examples of passive verbs.

Forms of the predicate verb below do not always apply to the verb be; however, they do apply to all other English verbs. See Auxiliary Verbs for more information about the verb be.

See Conditional Sentences for some unusual uses of tenses.

See Verbs A-L and Verbs M-Z for explanations and examples of the five forms of English verbs: BASE, +S, PAST, ING, PARTICIPLE.

Many teachers and textbooks use progressive instead of continuous; they are the same (continuous = progressive).


Simple Present

Forms of the predicate verb:

1. BASE (if the subject is I, we, you, they, or any plural)

2. +S (if the subject is he, she, it, or any singular other than I or you)

Meanings & examples:

1. Habitual activity

We study every day.

The class meets every Tuesday and Thursday.

2. Present state or condition (stative verbs only; see Stative Verbs below.)

They seem happy.

He knows we are waiting for him.
3. General truth or natural law

Bears live in the forest.

The sun rises in the east.

4. Planned or scheduled future events

We take a final exam at the end of the term.

The plane leaves at 9:00 AM tomorrow.

5. Future time in adverb clauses (see Adverb Clauses)

Before we take the final exam, we will have to study.

I will call her after I talk to her friends tomorrow.

6. In real and predictive conditional sentence (see Conditional Sentences)


Simple Past

Form of the predicate verb: PAST

Meanings & examples:

1. Completed past action

We studied all day yesterday.

I took the exam early this morning.

2. In imaginative conditional sentences (see Conditional Sentences)


Simple Future

Forms of the predicate verb:

1. WILL + BASE

2. AM/IS/ARE + GOING TO + BASE

Meaning & examples:

Future time

We will have lunch with George tomorrow.

He is going to study in the library after lunch.

Present Continuous (nonstative verbs only; see Stative Verbs below)

Form of the predicate verb: AM/IS/ARE + ING

Meanings & examples:

1. Present time

We are preparing for the final exam.

George is studying in the library right now.

2. Planned or scheduled future events

We are taking a final exam at the end of the term.

The plane is leaving at 9:00 AM tomorrow.

3. To emphasize that a state or action is temporary

Mary is living in California. (She might move soon.)

George lives in California. (Simple present: no change is implied.)

Past Continuous (nonstative verbs only; see Stative Verbs below)

Form of the predicate verb: WAS/WERE + ING

Meanings & examples:

1. Emphasizes duration and/or repetition of past action

He was studying all day yesterday.

We were stopping at every red light.

2. Past action that began before and continued until or after some other past action or time

He was riding his bike until he got a car.

She was sleeping when I got home.

She was sleeping at 2:00 AM. (She went to sleep at 12:00 midnight; she woke up at 8:00 AM.)

3. Two actions that continued for some time at about the same time

They were watching TV while he was studying.

Future Continuous (nonstative verbs only; see Stative Verbs below)

Forms of the predicate verb:

1. WILL + BE + ING

2. AM/IS/ARE + GOING TO + BE + ING

Meanings & examples:

1. Emphasizes duration and/or repetition of future action

We will be working all day tomorrow.

He is going to be cooking dinner every night next week.

2. Indicates future action that will begin before and continue until or after some other future action or time

She will be studying until 4:00.

He is going to be working at noon.

Present Perfect

Form of the predicate verb: HAVE/HAS + PARTICIPLE

Meanings & examples:

The present perfect indicates that a past action or state has relevance in the present. The following are some possible explanations for present relevance of a past action or state:

1. Something happened at an unspecified past time

Mary has left school.

Present perfect cannot be used with a specified past time. If a past time is specified, a past tense must be used.

not correct

* Mary has left school last year.

correct

Mary left school last year.

2. Something happened in the very recent past

I have just finished my homework. (I finished it a few minutes ago.)

3. Something happened in the past and it has affected the present

Thank you for inviting me to lunch, but I have already eaten.

Because I ate lunch (past action) a short time ago, I am not eating lunch with you now.

4. Something happened in the past and it may happen again in the future

I have visited Los Angeles many times.

President Kennedy visited Los Angeles many times.

I may visit Los Angeles again in the future, but Kennedy will not because he is dead.

5. Something began in the past and continues in the present

We have known each other for many years.

We met many years ago and we still know each other now.

6. Something happened in the past but within a present time period

My class has had two quizzes this term.

I have felt several earthquakes during my lifetime.

Past Perfect

Form of the predicate verb: HAD + PARTICIPLE

Meanings & examples:

1. Indicates past action was completed before another past action or past time

He had finished the work before she gave him the money.

He had washed both cars by 9:00 AM.

2. In imaginative conditional sentences (see Conditional Sentences)


Future Perfect

Forms of the predicate verb:

1. WILL + HAVE + PARTICIPLE

2. AM/IS/ARE + GOING TO + HAVE + PARTICIPLE

Meaning & examples:

Indicates future action that will be completed before another future action or future time

They will have read the book before they take the test.

They will have finished the test by 6:00.

Present Perfect Continuous (nonstative verbs only; see Stative Verbs below)

Form of the predicate verb: HAVE/HAS + BEEN + ING

Meanings & examples:

Indicates a situation that began in the past and continues in the present

He has been living in California since 1995.

Past Perfect Continuous (nonstative verbs only; see Stative Verbs below)

Form of the predicate verb: HAD + BEEN + ING

Meaning & examples:

Indicates a past action that continued for some time before some other past action or time

He had been working for two weeks before she paid him.

By 8:00, they had been watching TV for two hours.

Future Perfect Continuous (nonstative verbs only; see Stative Verbs below)

Forms of the predicate verb:

1. WILL + HAVE + BEEN + ING

2. AM/IS/ARE + GOING TO + HAVE + BEEN + ING

Meaning & examples:

Indicates future action that continues until some other future action or time

I will have been driving for three hours before I stop.

He is going to have been working for two hours by 9:00.

C. Stative verbs are not used in continuous tenses

A stative verb (love for example) refers to a state of knowledge, perception, or condition; a nonstative verb (eat) refers to an action.

Simple present tense forms of stative verbs are used to mean present time.

correct

Fred loves hamburgers. (stative)

not correct

* Fred is loving hamburgers.

Present continuous forms of nonstative verbs are used to mean present time.

not correct

* Fred eats a hamburger now.

correct

Fred is eating a hamburger now. (nonstative)

Verbs, like most words, can have two (or more) meanings. Some verbs have both stative and nonstative meanings. Here are some of the more common verbs with both stative and nonstative meanings:

appear, feel, have, look, see, smell, taste, think, weigh

The food tastes good. (stative; the food is not doing anything)

Fred is tasting the food. (nonstative; Fred is performing an action)

Fred weighs 195 pounds. (stative; Fred is not doing anything)

Fred is weighing himself. (nonstative; Fred is performing an action)

Some common stative verbs:

verbs indicating possession: belong, have (=possess), own, possess

verbs indicating mental states: believe, doubt, imagine, know, mean, recognize, remember, suppose, think (=believe), understand, wonder

verbs related to the senses: appear, feel, hear, look (=appear), see, smell, taste

verbs referring to emotions: appreciate, desire, dislike, hate, like, love

other stative verbs: contain, cost, equal, measure, need, owe, prefer, seem, want, weigh

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Every Human Being MUST watch this video

Nick Vujicic and his attitude serve as a great examples of the celebration of life over limitations.

The human spirit can handle much more than we realize.

"I LOVE LIVING LIFE. I AM HAPPY."... See More

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Think you've got it bad?
Need some encouragement?
Fallen down?
Can't find the STRENGTH to get back up?

Watch this video. It will help. Then share it with others.

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"If I fail, I try again, and again, and again..."
If YOU fail, are YOU going to try again?

It matters how you're going to FINISH...
Are you going to finish STRONG?

We are put in situations to build our character... not destroy us.

The tensions in our life are there to strengthen our convictions... not to run over us.

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Nick is thankful for what he HAS.
He's not bitter for what he does NOT have.

I have never met a bitter person who was thankful.
I have never met a thankful person who was bitter.

In life you have a choice: Bitter or BETTER?

...........................

yes this is not the End!! Never GIVE UP


never-give-up

By JIBI THOMAS

How configure multiple skype


Skype has added a new switch for supporting multiple users on a single PC. The following steps would show how to create a new shortcut for starting a new Skype instance with a different Skype user account.

  • Open Windows Explorer and go to "C:\Program Files\Skype\Phone."
  • Right click on the Skype icon and select "Create Shortcut."
  • Right click on the new shortcut and select "Properties."
  • Apply " /secondary" to "Target" to become '"C:\Program Files\Skype\Phone\Skype.exe" /secondary.'
  • Click OK to save the change.
  • Give the new shortcut a new name and move it to anywhere you desired.
  • When you click on this new shortcut, a new Skype window will appear and you can log on using another Skype account.
Simple know!!! Hope it Helped


ya Make a skype call, i am there -> jibinclt

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