Good Morning ( Message )

ATT00010 Life is very short, so break your silly ego, forgive quickly, believe slowly, love truly, laugh loudly & never avoid anything that makes you smile. Have a beautiful day !!! by JIBI

may (WISH)

used to introduce a wish or a hope
May you have a long and fruitful marriage.

may (PERMISSION)

used to ask or give permission
A reader may borrow up to six books at any one time.
"May I help myself to some more food?" "Yes, of course."
Hi, my name's Tiffany. How may I help you?
Compare might (PERMISSION)



EXTRA EXAMPLES

Hello, may I speak to Ken Griffey senior, please?

"Higgins, you may go now." "Very good, sir."

Now a round of quick-fire questions - the first person to press their buzzer may answer.

Ask your teacher if you may sit at the front of the class until your glasses are repaired.

Excuse me - is this someone's seat, or may I sit here?

may (POSSIBILITY)

used to express possibility
There may be other problems that we don't know about.
I may see you tomorrow before I leave.
The cause of the accident may never be discovered.
The explosion may have been caused by a faulty electrical connection.
We'd better not interfere - she may not like it.
There may be some evidence to suggest she's guilty, but it's hardly conclusive.
Compare might (POSSIBILITY)

EXTRA EXAMPLES

If used on delicate skin, this cream may produce a stinging sensation.

People who suffer a stroke may experience a loss of speech.

This afternoon we may see some wintry showers over higher ground.

We may have to sell the house, but I hope it won't come to that.

I worry about the destructive effect that violent films may have on children.



Usage Notes

can, could or may?
Can is used in standard spoken English when asking for permission. Could is slightly more formal. Both of these are acceptable in most forms of written English, although in very formal writing, such as official instructions, may is usually used instead.

Persons under 14 unaccompanied by an adult may not enter.


COMMON LERNER ERROR


may be or maybe?
May be is written as two separate words when may is used as a modal verb and be is used as a verb.
I may be late this evening.
I maybe late this evening. (wrong)

Maybe is an adverb, and is written as one word.
Maybe we should do it tomorrow.
May be we should do it tomorrow. (wrong)




could (SUGGEST)

used for making a suggestion
We could go for a drink after work tomorrow, if you like.
You could always call Susie and see if she might babysit.

EXTRA EXAMPLES

You could offer to buy her a new one.

Could you get a bigger house?

We could try mending it with glue.

I could look after Toby for you.

We could have lunch one day.

could (POSSIBILITY)

used to express possibility, especially slight or uncertain possibility
A lot of crime could be prevented.
She could arrive anytime now.
This new drug could be an important step in the fight against cancer.
Be careful with that stick - it could have gone in my eye!

EXTRA EXAMPLES

Passengers could face long delays.

The temperature could fall below zero overnight.

You could be the Queen of England, for all I care - you're not coming in here without a ticket.

Anything could happen in the next half hour.

It is not inconceivable that she could be lying.

could (REQUEST)

used as a more polite form of 'can' when asking someone to provide something or do something
Could you lend me £5?
Could you possibly turn that music down a little, please?

EXTRA EXAMPLES

Please could you explain why you're so late.

I'm frozen - could you close the window?

I've got rather a full week next week - could we postpone our meeting?

If you could get that report finished by Thursday I'd be very grateful.

Ben, could you hand round the biscuits?

COULD (PERMISSION)

used as a more polite form of 'can' when asking for permission
Could I speak to Mr Davis, please?
Excuse me, could I just say something?

EXTRA EXAMPLES
Could I borrow your pen?

Could we see her now, please?

Could I have some more pudding?

Could I use your bathroom, please?

Could I leave the children with you this morning?

COULD (CAN)

Past simple of can, used to talk about what someone or something was able or allowed to do
When I was younger I could stay up all night and not get tired.
It was so noisy that we couldn't hear ourselves speak.
You said we could watch television when we've finished our homework.
We asked if the computer could access the Internet.

EXTRA EXAMPLES
She walked off before I could say anything.

I could never have achieved this without the encouragement of my husband and family.

I could see by the look on their faces that something was wrong.

I wish I could find (the) time to do more reading.

Even when you win a match you always feel you could have played better.


Usage Notes

can, could or may?
Can is used in standard spoken English when asking for permission. Could is slightly more formal. Both of these are acceptable in most forms of written English, although in very formal writing, such as official instructions, may is usually used instead.

Persons under 14 unaccompanied by an adult may not enter.

CAN (OFFER)

Used in polite offers of help
Can I help you with those bags?
I'm afraid Ms Ferguson has already left the office. Can I be of any help?


EXTRA EXAMPLES

Is there anything I can do to help?

You can go instead of me, if you want.

You look lost - can I help you?

What a lot of bags! Can I carry something for you?

"If you like I can do some shopping for you." "That's a very kind offer."

CAN (POSSIBILITY)

Used to express possibility
You can get stamps from the local newsagents.
You can get very nasty skin diseases from bathing in dirty water.
Smoking can cause cancer.
Noise can be quite a problem when you're living in a flat.
He can be really annoying at times (= He is sometimes very annoying).

EXTRA EXAMPLES

Couples who are childless can feel excluded from the rest of society.

Children can choke on peanuts.

Clearance of a cheque can take up to a week.

You can get travel concessions if you are under 26.

Not making a will can have serious consequences for the people you might wish to benefit.

CAN (REQUEST)

Used to request something
If you see Adrian, can you tell him I'm in London next weekend?
Can you make a little less noise, please? I'm trying to work.

EXTRA EXAMPLES


I can't get the cork out of the bottle - can you try?

Excuse me, can I just get past?

It's freezing in here - can I close the window?

Please can I have a go on your bike?

Andrew, can you help me install this software?

CAN (PERMISSION)

T be allowed to
Can I use your bike, John?
You can park over there.
You can have a piece of cake after you've eaten your vegetables!


EXTRA EXAMPLES

If you finish early you can go home.

She can come whenever she likes, as far as I'm concerned.

Finish up your dinner and you can have dessert.

How early can you get off this afternoon?

Anyone can go - you don't have to be invited.

Usage Notes

can, could or may?
Can is used in standard spoken English when asking for permission. Could is slightly more formal. Both of these are acceptable in most forms of written English, although in very formal writing, such as official instructions, may is usually used instead.

Persons under 14 unaccompanied by an adult may not enter.




CAN (ABILITY)

To be able to
Can you drive?
She can speak four languages.
Can you read that sign from this distance?
The doctors are doing all that they can, but she's still not breathing properly.
Do the best you can - I realize the circumstances are not ideal.
If the party is awful, we can always leave (= that would be one possible solution to our problem).
"She's really furious about it." "Can you blame her (= I'm not surprised)?"

EXTRA EXAMPLES

I don't know how he can afford a new car on his salary.

Cats can see in the dark.

The water's not deep here - look, I can touch the bottom.

I doubt whether I can finish the work on time.

Computers can perform millions of calculations every second.

COMMON LERNER ERROR

can/could or be able to?
Be able to means the same as can, but it is used in different kinds of sentences. Be able to is used after modal and auxiliary verbs, for example when you use the verb will in order to talk about the future.

I'm afraid I won't be able to come to your party.
I'm afraid I won't can come to your party. (wrong)

When you form the simple past with could it refers to a general ability.

I could swim before I was three.
When you form the simple past with was/were able to it refers to something
you managed to do on a particular occasion.

A man was able to swim out to the girl and save her.

The modal verbs

The modal verbs are:-

CAN / COULD / MAY / MIGHT / MUST / SHALL / SHOULD / OUGHT TO / WILL / WOULD

Modal
Example
Uses
Can They can control their own budgets.

We can’t fix it.

Can I smoke here?

Can you help me?

Ability / Possibility

Inability / Impossibility

Asking for permission

Request

Could Could I borrow your dictionary?

Could you say it again more slowly?

We could try to fix it ourselves.

I think we could have another Gulf War.

He gave up his old job so he could work for us.

Asking for permission.

Request

Suggestion

Future possibility

Ability in the past

May May I have another cup of coffee?

China may become a major economic power.

Asking for permission

Future possibility

Might

We'd better phone tomorrow, they might be eating their dinner now.

They might give us a 10% discount.

Present possibility

Future possibility

Must We must say good-bye now.

They mustn’t disrupt the work more than necessary.

Necessity / Obligation

Prohibition

Ought to We ought to employ a professional writer. Saying what’s right or correct
Shall
(More common in the UK than the US)
Shall I help you with your luggage?

Shall we say 2.30 then?

Shall I do that or will you?

Offer

Suggestion

Asking what to do

Should We should sort out this problem at once.

I think we should check everything again.

Profits should increase next year.

Saying what’s right or correct

Recommending action

Uncertain prediction

Will I can’t see any taxis so I’ll walk.

I'll do that for you if you like.

I’ll get back to you first thing on Monday.

Profits will increase next year.

Instant decisions

Offer

Promise

Certain prediction

Would Would you mind if I brought a colleague with me?

Would you pass the salt please?

Would you mind waiting a moment?

"Would three o`clock suit you?" - "That’d be fine."

Would you like to play golf this Friday?

"Would you prefer tea or coffee?" - "I’d like tea please."

Asking for permission

Request

Request

Making arrangements

Invitation

Preferences


!Note The modal auxiliary verbs are always followed by the base form.

Nouns and Articles

Nouns are words that are names of people, places, things, concepts,…. In sentences, nouns are subjects of verbs, objects of verbs, subject complements, and objects of prepositions. Nouns are often preceded by determiners (see det in Correction Symbols Two). The articles (a, an, the) are important determiners.

Note the noun teacher in the following sentences:

The teacher is talking to the class. (subject of verb)

The students are watching the teacher. (object of verb)

John is a teacher. (subject complement)

George gave his essay to the teacher. (object of preposition)


A. There are two types of nouns.

1. Proper nouns include names of particular people, countries, states, cities, schools, rivers, lakes, mountains, oceans, languages, months, days,…. They always begin with capital letters. Here are some examples:

John Fleming

English

De Anza College

Cupertino

California

United States

Tuesday

July

2. All others are common nouns. Here are some examples:

man

language

school

city

state

country

day

month

B. There are two types of common nouns.

1. Count nouns have plural forms. Most count nouns have both singular and plural forms, but a few have plural forms only:

people

police

clothes

2. Noncount nouns have singular forms only:

advice

furniture

information

3. Note that many noncount nouns are often used as count nouns. This is especially true of nouns that refer to things we eat and drink:

coffee

food

fruit

meat

When a noncount noun is used as a plural count noun, it usually means one of the following:

a. Containers

two coffees, for example, can mean two cups of coffee

b. Kinds

several fruits, for example, can mean several kinds of fruit

4. Here are some common noncount nouns:

FOOD, DRINKS:
beer, bread, butter, cereal, cheese, coffee, corn, cream, flour, food, fruit, honey, ice cream, juice, margarine, meat, milk, pasta, pepper, rice, salt, spaghetti, sugar, tea, vinegar, water, wheat
ABSTRACT NOUNS, EMOTIONS:
advice, beauty, behavior, crime, equality, experience, freedom, fun, happiness, hate, health, help, homework, honesty, ignorance, information, insanity, insurance, love, news, patience, peace, permission, progress, unemployment, work
LANGUAGES, FIELDS OF STUDY:
accounting, biology, Chinese, engineering, English, geography, history, Indonesian, linguistics, literature, mathematics, music, philosophy, physics, psychology, Russian, Spanish, Turkish
CATEGORIES:
baggage, cloth, clothing, equipment, food, fruit, furniture, homework, jewelry, junk, luggage, machinery, mail, money, stuff, transportation, trash
WEATHER, NATURAL PHENOMENA:
cold, darkness, electricity, fire, fog, hail, heat, humidity, ice, lightning, rain, sleet, snow, sunshine, thunder, weather, wind
SOLIDS, LIQUIDS, GASES, POWDERS, GRAINS, CLOTH:
air, beer, blood, cereal, chalk, coal, copper, corn, cotton, cream, detergent, dust, flour, fog, gasoline, glass, honey, hydrogen, ice, iron, juice, leather, lotion, milk, nylon, oil, oxygen, pepper, pollution , polyester, rice, rope, salt, shampoo, silk, smog, smoke, soap, steam, string, sugar, thread, vinegar, water, wheat, wine, wood, wool


C. Nouns can have three kinds of meaning.

1. Definite. A noun is definite when the writer and reader share information about the noun. Nouns can be definite for the following reasons:

The noun has been mentioned before:

An old man lived in a big house. The old man had three grandchildren who came to the big house every Saturday morning.

A noun can be followed by a phrase or clause that makes it definite:

the president of De Anza College

the book that I bought yesterday

The noun refers to something unique:

the sun

the moon

The noun is definite because of its setting. In a classroom, for example, everyone will understand the same meaning for these nouns:

the blackboard

the teacher

the clock

Nouns can be definite for members of groups. A group of classmates will understand the same meaning for the following nouns:

the teacher

the exam

the textbook

The noun phrase includes a superlative or ordinal number:

the slowest writer

the most difficult assignment

the first page

2. Indefinite. A noun is indefinite when the writer and reader don’t share information about the noun.

3. Generic. A noun is generic when it represents a whole class (not an individual or individuals). Generic meaning can be expressed in different ways (in D. below, the three sentences in which the noun bicycle is used generically all have the same meaning).


D. Uses of a, an, the, and no article

1. The definite article the is used with:

A few proper nouns (names of canals, deserts, forests, oceans, rivers, seas; plural names of islands, lakes, and mountains; a few countries;… )

The Mississippi River is the longest in the United States.

Singular or plural count nouns (definite)

The old man in the big house loved to see the children who came to visit.

Noncount nouns (definite)

The coffee that I had this morning was not very good.

Singular count nouns (generic)

The bicycle is excellent transportation.

2. The indefinite articles a and an are used with:

Singular count nouns (indefinite)

A man is sitting on the bench at the bus stop.

Singular count nouns (generic)

A bicycle is excellent transportation.

3. No Article (and no other determiner) is used with:

Most proper nouns (definite)

George and Fred both speak English.

Plural count nouns (generic)

Bicycles are excellent transportation.

Noncount nouns (generic)

Coffee is served in nearly all restaurants.

Plural count nouns (indefinite)

I talk to students every day.

Noncount nouns (indefinite)

I need information.

Passive Sentences

Passive voice verbs are used in writing much more often than in speech, and they are used in some types of writing much more often than in others. Passives are used more in journalism (newspapers, magazines) than in fiction (novels, stories), but most journalists and fiction writers use far more active than passive sentences. However, passives are very common in all types of scientific and technical writing. Scientific articles often contain more passive than active sentences. You should not use passive voice verbs unless you have a good reason.

A. Relationship between active and passive:

1. The object of the active verb is the subject of the passive verb (“English” in the example sentences below). Therefore, verbs which cannot be followed by objects (intransitive verbs) cannot be used in passive voice.

These are some common intransitive verbs: appear, arrive, come, cry, die, go, happen, occur, rain, sleep, stay, walk. These verbs cannot be used in passive voice.

2. The passive verb always contains a form of the auxiliary verb be. The form of be in the passive verb phrase corresponds to the form of the main verb in the active verb phrase (see the underlined words in the example sentences below). That is, if the active main verb is simple present tense, then a simple present tense form of be is used in the passive verb phrase; if the active main verb is -ING, then the -ING form of be is used in the passive verb phrase; and so on.

3. The main verb in a passive predicate verb phrase is always the participle form of the verb.

4. Some examples of active and passive sentences:

ACTIVE: They speak English.
PASSIVE: English is spoken.

ACTIVE: They spoke English.
PASSIVE: English was spoken.

ACTIVE: They will speak English.
PASSIVE: English will be spoken.

ACTIVE: They are going to speak English.
PASSIVE: English is going to be spoken.

ACTIVE: They are speaking English.
PASSIVE: English is being spoken.

ACTIVE: They were speaking English.
PASSIVE: English was being spoken.

ACTIVE: They have spoken English.
PASSIVE: English has been spoken.

ACTIVE: They had spoken English.
PASSIVE: English had been spoken.

ACTIVE: They will have spoken English.
PASSIVE: English will have been spoken.

5. Perfect progressive verb forms are generally used in active voice only. That is, these are good English sentences:

ACTIVE: They have been speaking English.
ACTIVE: They had been speaking English.
ACTIVE: They will have been speaking English.

But sentences like these are rarely used:

PASSIVE: English has been being spoken.
PASSIVE: English had been being spoken.
PASSIVE: English will have been being spoken.


B. Most passive sentences do not contain an agent; all active sentences contain an agent.

1. An agent is the subject of the active verb. In the example sentences above, the agent is “they” in all the active sentences; the passive sentences do not contain an agent.

2. When a passive sentence contains an agent, it is in a prepositional phrase following the verb. For example:

English is spoken by them.

In the following sentences, the noun “teachers” is the agent in both sentences. “Teachers” is also the subject of the active verb, but “exams” is the subject of the passive verb.

ACTIVE: Teachers prepare exams.

PASSIVE: Exams are prepared by teachers.


C. You should not use passive voice unless you have a good reason.

Here are some good reasons for using passive voice:

1. Passive voice is often used when the agent (the doer of an action; the subject of an active verb) is obvious, unknown, or unnecessary:

Oranges are grown in California.
Toyotas are made in Japan.
Her purse was stolen.

2. Passive voice is often used when the agent is known, but the speaker/writer doesn’t want to mention it:

She was given bad advice.
A mistake has been made.

3. Passive voice is often used when the agent is very general such as people or somebody.

English is spoken here.
The door should be locked.

4. Passive voice is often used when the speaker/writer wants to emphasize a result:

Several thousand people were killed by the earthquake.

5. Passive voice is often used when the speaker/writer wants to keep the same subject for two or more verbs but this would not be possible if both verbs were the same voice (active or passive).

For example, in a conversation about George, a speaker would probably use sentence a below rather than sentence b (both sentences are correct).

a. George had several interviews before he was hired by a software company.
b. George had several interviews before a software company hired him.

Conditional Sentences

Because conditional sentences are quite complex in both form and meaning, they are a problem for most learners of English. If you have a good understanding of the English tense system and of the modal auxiliaries, you will find it easier to understand and use conditional sentences. (The sentence you just read is a predictive conditional sentence.)

All conditional sentences contain a dependent clause and an independent clause. The dependent clause usually begins with if; it expresses a condition. The independent clause expresses a result of the condition. The if-clause is usually first, but the order of the clauses is usually not important. Thus, these two sentences have basically the same meaning:

If she goes to the store, she will buy ice cream.

She will buy ice cream if she goes to the store.

You have probably noticed that different teachers, textbooks, and Web sites sometimes explain the same thing in different ways. This seems to be especially true of conditional sentences. However, two different explanations can both be correct, especially if the difference is due to the fact that complicated material has been organized in different ways. This is often true of explanations of conditionals that you find in your textbooks. Here conditional sentences are divided into three types based on their meanings: real, predictive, and imaginative conditional sentences.


A. Real conditional sentences can express generalizations and inferences.

1. Generalizations include facts that are always true and never change, and they include present or past habitual activities that are or were usually true.

Real conditionals expressing generalizations usually have the same tense (usually simple present or simple past) in both clauses. However, if the simple present tense is used in the if-clause, will + verb can be used in the main clause without changing the meaning.

Examples of real conditional sentences expressing facts:

If water boils, it turns to steam.

If water boils, it will turn to steam.

Examples of real conditional sentences expressing habitual activities:

If he eats breakfast, he feels better all day.

If he eats breakfast, he will feel better all day.

If he ate breakfast, he felt better all day.

These generalizations can also be expressed by using when or whenever instead of if:

When water boils, it turns to steam.

When he eats breakfast, he feels better all day.

When he ate breakfast, he felt better all day.

2. Inferences are often expressed in real conditional sentences.

Real conditionals expressing inferences usually have parallel verb phrases in both clauses. However, if a modal which explicitly expresses an inference (must or should, for example) is used in the main clause, parallel verb phrases are not used.

Examples of real conditional sentences expressing inferences:

If today is Wednesday, it is George’s birthday.

If I can do it, anyone can do it.

if it is raining, the streets are getting wet.

If he was at school, he saw the accident.

If today is Wednesday, it must be George’s birthday.

If I can do it, anyone must be able to do it.

if it is raining, the streets must be getting wet.

If he was at school, he must have seen the accident.

B. Predictive conditional sentences can express predictions and plans.

1. Predictive conditional sentences usually contain simple present tense in the if-clause and will or be going to in the result clause. However, a weaker modal of prediction (may or should, for example) can be used in the result clause to express less certainty.

2. Examples of predictive conditional sentences:

If the exam is hard, many students are going to fail.

If Mary does well on the final exam, she will get an A in the class.

If George does well on the final exam, he may get an A in the class.

If Fred studies, he should pass the exam.

C. Imaginative conditional sentences are the most difficult for many learners of English because of the unusual relationship between form (the tenses used) and meaning.

In this type of conditional sentence, past tense refers to present or future time; past perfect tense refers to past time. Another problem for many learners of English is that were (not was) is used with singular subjects. Be is the only English verb with two past tense forms, but only one of them (were) is used in imaginative conditional sentences.

Imaginative conditional sentences can express hypothetical or contrary-to-fact events or states.

1. Hypothetical events or states are unlikely but possible in the present or future.

Imaginative conditional sentences expressing hypothetical events or states have a past tense verb in the if-clause and would + verb (or might or could + verb) in the result clause.

Examples of hypothetical conditional sentences (present and/or future time):

If George had enough money, he would buy a new car.

If I won the lottery, I would buy you a present.

If she knew the answer, she would tell us.

(George probably does not have enough money; I probably will not win the lottery; she probably does not know the answer.)

2. Contrary-to-fact events or states are either impossible in the present time or did not happen in the past.

Imaginative conditional sentences expressing present contrary-to-fact events or states have a past verb in the if-clause and would + verb (or might or could + verb) in the result clause. Some examples:

If I were you, I would not do that.

If she studied for exams, she would get better grades.

If it were raining, the streets would be wet.

(I am not you; she doesn’t study for exams; it isn’t raining.)

Imaginative conditional sentences expressing past contrary-to-fact events or states have a past perfect verb in the if-clause and would + have + verb (or might or could + have + verb) in the result clause. Some examples:

If George had had enough money, he would have bought a new car.

If I had won the lottery, I would have bought you a present.

If she had known the answer, she would have told us.

(George did not have enough money; I did not win the lottery; she did not know the answer.)

Punctuation

Correct punctuation will help your reader understand your writing; incorrect punctuation may make your writing difficult or impossible to understand. English punctuation (unlike English spelling and English grammar) is fairly simple and regular. Here are the most important rules of English punctuation.

A. At the beginning and end of a sentence (see The Sentence)

1. All sentences begin with a capital letter: A, B, C, D, E,….

(The other kind of letters are lower case: a, b, c, d, e,….)

2. All sentences end with a period or a question mark or an exclamation point: . ? !

B. The comma

1. A comma is used between items in a list when the list includes at least three items (see Parallel Structures):

I bought a book, a compact disk, and a videotape.

George, Fred, and Mary went shopping.

He got up, he took a shower, he ate breakfast, and he left the house.

Note that a coordinating conjunction comes before the last item. The comma before the conjunction is optional. Note also that the items can be words, phrases, or clauses and they must be parallel (see Parallel Structures).

2. A comma is used after a phrase or adverb clause (see Adverb Clauses) that comes before the subject of a sentence:

While I was cooking breakfast, the rest of the family was sleeping.

Before fixing an omelet, you must break some eggs.

Last night, I saw a really good movie.

If an introductory phrase is very short (2-3 words), the comma is optional:

Last night I saw a really good movie.

If an adverb clause comes after the main clause, the comma is not used:

The rest of the family was sleeping while I was cooking breakfast.

3. Commas separate extra (non-restrictive) words, phrases, or clauses from the rest of the sentence:

California, which is the most populous state, is in the western US.

California, the most populous state, is in the western US.

Also see Adjective Clauses.

4. A comma and a coordinating conjunction are used between two independent clauses (see Parallel Structures):

He watched TV, but she went to bed.

I went to the library, and I worked on my composition for several hours.

Our teacher says that English is easy, but the students don’t believe it.

The comma is optional when at least one of the clauses is short (5 words or less):

He watched TV but she went to bed.

5. A comma separates a quotation from the rest of the sentence:

The doctor said, “I will see you in the morning.”

“I will see you in the morning, ” the doctor said.

6. A comma separates a tag question from the rest of the sentence:

English is easy, isn’t it?

Billy didn’t know how to swim, did he?

They shoot horses, don’t they?

C. semicolon

1. A semicolon can be used between closely related independent clauses (see Parallel Structures):

English is easy; mathematics is difficult.

A semicolon is often used between independent clauses when the second clause includes a transition:

English is easy; however, mathematics is difficult.

2. A semicolon separates items in a list when at least one of the items contains a comma:

We visited San Francisco, California; Portland, Oregon; and Seattle, Washington.

D. The colon

1. A colon can introduce a list:

There are several things a student in a composition class needs to bring to every class meeting: paper, a pen, a dictionary, and the textbook.

2. A colon can introduce an explanation:

Some students are afraid to take composition classes: They think writing is too hard.

E. The apostrophe

1. An apostrophe indicates the place in a contraction where a letter or letters have been omitted:

is not = isnt

was not = wasnt

does not = doesnt

did not = didnt

she is = shes

they had = theyd

2. An apostrophe indicates possession:

a. Add apostrophe + s to singular nouns and indefinite pronouns.

Fred’s car, my brother’s hat, somebody’s book

b. Add apostrophe only to plural nouns which end with -s.

the girls clothes, the teachers offices

c. Add apostrophe + s to plural nouns which don’t end with -s.

the children’s breakfast, the men’s tools

F. Dashes and parentheses

Dashes and parentheses separate extra information from the rest of the sentence. They are often used for explanations, examples, and comments. Material between the dashes and parentheses is not grammatically part of the sentence.

Most people born in the US speak only one languageEnglish.

This device is easy to use if you know how (see the owner’s manual).

G. Quotation marks

1. Quotation marks are used around the exact words of a speaker or writer:

My teacher often says, English is easy.

Note the other punctuation in the sentence above: the comma before the beginning quotation mark and the period before the end quotation mark.

2. Quotation marks are used around the title of a TV program, song, short story, article, chapter, and essay:

The Killers is a famous short story by Ernest Hemingway.

Every night I watch The Late Show.

H. An important note about punctuation:

The comma, the period, the semicolon, the colon, and the apostrophe are never placed at the beginning of a line.

not correct:

* Billy, Fred, and George hoped to finish school

, get good jobs, and travel around the world.

correct:

Billy, Fred, and George hoped to finish school,

get good jobs, and travel around the world.

Verbs M-Z

A. English verbs can be divided into two groups based on the number of forms.

1. Be has eight forms (see Auxiliary Verbs).

2. All other English verbs have five forms (see the list of common English verbs below).

base (sometimes called the simple or bare infinitive form)

+s

past

ing (traditionally called the present participle)

participle (traditionally called the past participle)

B. Functions of the five verb forms (all verbs except be):

1. The base form has functions both with and without tense.

a. With tense: The base form is the simple present tense form in statements when the subject is I, we, you, they, or any plural.

b. Without tense: The base form is used:

1. in simple present and simple past tense verb phrases when the tense is on the auxiliary do (that is, in questions and negatives) no matter what the subject is;

2. in verb phrases which contain any of the modal, phrasal modal, or modal-like auxiliaries (see Modal Auxiliaries) no matter what the subject is;

3. with to to make infinitives.

2. The +s form has only one function. It is the present tense form in statements when the subject is he, she, it, or any singular other than I or you.

3. The past form has only one function. It is the past tense form in statements no matter what the subject is.

4. The ing form has no tense. It has three functions:

a. It is the main verb in continuous verb phrases.

b. It can be a noun. (It is called a gerund when it functions as a noun.)

c. It can be a modifier.

5. The participle form has no tense. It has two functions:

a. It is the main verb in perfect and passive verb phrases.

b. It can be a modifier.

C. Below is a list of the five forms of some common English verbs. Also see Verbs A-L.

base: make +s: makes past: made ing: making participle: made
base: manage +s: manages past: managed ing: managing participle: managed
base: mean +s: means past: meant ing: meaning participle: meant
base: meet +s: meets past: met ing: meeting participle: met
base: memorize +s: memorizes past: memorized ing: memorizing participle: memorized
base: mention +s: mentions past: mentioned ing: mentioning participle: mentioned
base: miss +s: misses past: missed ing: missing participle: missed
base: misspell +s: misspells past: misspelled ing: misspelling participle: misspelled
base: mistake +s: mistakes past: mistook ing: mistaking participle: mistaken
base: mix +s: mixes past: mixed ing: mixing participle: mixed
base: moan +s: moans past: moaned ing: moaning participle: moaned
base: move +s: moves past: moved ing: moving participle: moved
base: murder +s: murders past: murdered ing: murdering participle: murdered
base: mutter +s: mutters past: muttered ing: muttering participle: muttered
base: narrate +s: narrates past: narrated ing: narrating participle: narrated
base: need +s: needs past: needed ing: needing participle: needed
base: neglect +s: neglects past: neglected ing: neglecting participle: neglected
base: notice +s: notices past: noticed ing: noticing participle: noticed
base: nullify +s: nullifies past: nullified ing: nullifying participle: nullified
base: observe +s: observes past: observed ing: observing participle: observed
base: occur +s: occurs past: occurred ing: occurring participle: occurred
base: offend +s: offends past: offended ing: offending participle: offended
base: offer +s: offers past: offered ing: offering participle: offered
base: open +s: opens past: opened ing: opening participle: opened
base: order +s: orders past: ordered ing: ordering participle: ordered
base: overcome +s: overcomes past: overcame ing: overcoming participle: overcome
base: overdo +s: overdoes past: overdid ing: overdoing participle: overdone
base: overtake +s: overtakes past: overtook ing: overtaking participle: overtaken
base: overthrow +s: overthrows past: overthrew ing: overthrowing participle: overthrown
base: own +s: owns past: owned ing: owning participle: owned
base: pack +s: packs past: packed ing: packing participle: packed
base: paint +s: paints past: painted ing: painting participle: painted
base: pamper +s: pampers past: pampered ing: pampering participle: pampered
base: pant +s: pants past: panted ing: panting participle: panted
base: pass +s: passes past: passed ing: passing participle: passed
base: pay +s: pays past: paid ing: paying participle: paid
base: peek +s: peeks past: peeked ing: peeking participle: peeked
base: permit +s: permits past: permitted ing: permitting participle: permitted
base: persuade +s: persuades past: persuaded ing: persuading participle: persuaded
base: pick +s: picks past: picked ing: picking participle: picked
base: plan +s: plans past: planned ing: planning participle: planned
base: play +s: plays past: played ing: playing participle: played
base: plead +s: pleads past: pleaded ing: pleading participle: pleaded
base: pledge +s: pledges past: pledged ing: pledging participle: pledged
base: point +s: points past: pointed ing: pointing participle: pointed
base: polish +s: polishes past: polished ing: polishing participle: polished
base: postpone +s: postpones past: postponed ing: postponing participle: postponed
base: practice +s: practices past: practiced ing: practicing participle: practiced
base: pray +s: prays past: prayed ing: praying participle: prayed
base: prefer +s: prefers past: preferred ing: preferring participle: preferred
base: prepare +s: prepares past: prepared ing: preparing participle: prepared
base: prescribe +s: prescribes past: prescribed ing: prescribing participle: prescribed
base: present +s: presents past: presented ing: presenting participle: presented
base: pretend +s: pretends past: pretended ing: pretending participle: pretended
base: prevent +s: prevents past: prevented ing: preventing participle: prevented
base: produce +s: produces past: produced ing: producing participle: produced
base: promise +s: promises past: promised ing: promising participle: promised
base: pronounce +s: pronounces past: pronounced ing: pronouncing participle: pronounced
base: prove +s: proves past: proved ing: proving participle: proved
base: pull +s: pulls past: pulled ing: pulling participle: pulled
base: push +s: pushes past: pushed ing: pushing participle: pushed
base: put +s: puts past: put ing: putting participle: put
base: putter +s: putters past: puttered ing: puttering participle: puttered
base: quake +s: quakes past: quaked ing: quaking participle: quaked
base: qualify +s: qualifies past: qualified ing: qualifying participle: qualified
base: quarrel +s: quarrels past: quarreled ing: quarreling participle: quarreled
base: quibble +s: quibbles past: quibbled ing: quibbling participle: quibbled
base: quiet +s: quiets past: quieted ing: quieting participle: quieted
base: quit +s: quits past: quit ing: quitting participle: quit
base: quiver +s: quivers past: quivered ing: quivering participle: quivered
base: quote +s: quotes past: quoted ing: quoting participle: quoted
base: race +s: races past: raced ing: racing participle: raced
base: rain +s: rains past: rained ing: raining participle: rained
base: raise +s: raises past: raised ing: raising participle: raised
base: read +s: reads past: read ing: reading participle: read
base: realize +s: realizes past: realized ing: realizing participle: realized
base: recite +s: recites past: recited ing: reciting participle: recited
base: refer +s: refers past: referred ing: referring participle: referred
base: refuse +s: refuses past: refused ing: refusing participle: refused
base: rely +s: relies past: relied ing: relying participle: relied
base: remember +s: remembers past: remembered ing: remembering participle: remembered
base: remind +s: reminds past: reminded ing: reminding participle: reminded
base: rent +s: rents past: rented ing: renting participle: rented
base: repair +s: repairs past: repaired ing: repairing participle: repaired
base: repeat +s: repeats past: repeated ing: repeating participle: repeated
base: reply +s: replies past: replied ing: replying participle: replied
base: request +s: requests past: requested ing: requesting participle: requested
base: require +s: requires past: required ing: requiring participle: required
base: resent +s: resents past: resented ing: resenting participle: resented
base: resist +s: resists past: resisted ing: resisting participle: resisted
base: resolve +s: resolves past: resolved ing: resolving participle: resolved
base: return +s: returns past: returned ing: returning participle: returned
base: review +s: reviews past: reviewed ing: reviewing participle: reviewed
base: revolve +s: revolves past: revolved ing: revolving participle: revolved
base: ride +s: rides past: rode ing: riding participle: ridden
base: ring +s: rings past: rang ing: ringing participle: rung
base: rip +s: rips past: ripped ing: ripping participle: ripped
base: rise +s: rises past: rose ing: rising participle: risen
base: roast +s: roasts past: roasted ing: roasting participle: roasted
base: rob +s: robs past: robbed ing: robbing participle: robbed
base: rub +s: rubs past: rubbed ing: rubbing participle: rubbed
base: run +s: runs past: ran ing: running participle: run
base: save +s: saves past: saved ing: saving participle: saved
base: say +s: says past: said ing: saying participle: said
base: scream +s: screams past: screamed ing: screaming participle: screamed
base: see +s: sees past: saw ing: seeing participle: seen
base: seek +s: seeks past: sought ing: seeking participle: sought
base: seem +s: seems past: seemed ing: seeming participle: seemed
base: sell +s: sells past: sold ing: selling participle: sold
base: send +s: sends past: sent ing: sending participle: sent
base: separate +s: separates past: separated ing: separating participle: separated
base: set +s: sets past: set ing: setting participle: set
base: sew +s: sews past: sewed ing: sewing participle: sewn
base: shake +s: shakes past: shook ing: shaking participle: shaken
base: shed +s: sheds past: shed ing: shedding participle: shed
base: shine +s: shines past: shined ing: shining participle: shined
base: shine +s: shines past: shone ing: shining participle: shone
base: shiver +s: shivers past: shivered ing: shivering participle: shivered
base: shoot +s: shoots past: shot ing: shooting participle: shot
base: shout +s: shouts past: shouted ing: shouting participle: shouted
base: show +s: shows past: showed ing: showing participle: shown
base: shrink +s: shrinks past: shrank ing: shrinking participle: shrunk
base: shut +s: shuts past: shut ing: shutting participle: shut
base: sigh +s: sighs past: sighed ing: sighing participle: sighed
base: sing +s: sings past: sang ing: singing participle: sung
base: sink +s: sinks past: sank ing: sinking participle: sunk
base: sip +s: sips past: sipped ing: sipping participle: sipped
base: sit +s: sits past: sat ing: sitting participle: sat
base: slay +s: slays past: slew ing: slaying participle: slain
base: sleep +s: sleeps past: slept ing: sleeping participle: slept
base: slide +s: slides past: slid ing: sliding participle: slid
base: slit +s: slits past: slit ing: slitting participle: slit
base: smell +s: smells past: smelled ing: smelling participle: smelled
base: smile +s: smiles past: smiled ing: smiling participle: smiled
base: smoke +s: smokes past: smoked ing: smoking participle: smoked
base: sneak +s: sneaks past: sneaked ing: sneaking participle: sneaked
base: sneeze +s: sneezes past: sneezed ing: sneezing participle: sneezed
base: sniff +s: sniffs past: sniffed ing: sniffing participle: sniffed
base: speak +s: speaks past: spoke ing: speaking participle: spoken
base: speed +s: speeds past: sped ing: speeding participle: sped
base: spell +s: spells past: spelled ing: spelling participle: spelled
base: spend +s: spends past: spent ing: spending participle: spent
base: spill +s: spills past: spilled ing: spilling participle: spilled
base: spin +s: spins past: spun ing: spinning participle: spun
base: spit +s: spits past: spit ing: spitting participle: spit
base: split +s: splits past: split ing: splitting participle: split
base: spoil +s: spoils past: spoiled ing: spoiling participle: spoiled
base: spread +s: spreads past: spread ing: spreading participle: spread
base: spring +s: springs past: sprang ing: springing participle: sprung
base: stand +s: stands past: stood ing: standing participle: stood
base: start +s: starts past: started ing: starting participle: started
base: steal +s: steals past: stole ing: stealing participle: stolen
base: step +s: steps past: stepped ing: stepping participle: stepped
base: stick +s: sticks past: stuck ing: sticking participle: stuck
base: sting +s: stings past: stung ing: stinging participle: stung
base: stink +s: stinks past: stank ing: stinking participle: stunk
base: stir +s: stirs past: stirred ing: stirring participle: stirred
base: stop +s: stops past: stopped ing: stopping participle: stopped
base: strike +s: strikes past: struck ing: striking participle: struck
base: string +s: strings past: strung ing: stringing participle: strung
base: strip +s: strips past: stripped ing: stripping participle: stripped
base: strive +s: strives past: strove ing: striving participle: striven
base: study +s: studies past: studied ing: studying participle: studied
base: suffer +s: suffers past: suffered ing: suffering participle: suffered
base: suggest +s: suggests past: suggested ing: suggesting participle: suggested
base: suppose +s: supposes past: supposed ing: supposing participle: supposed
base: surprise +s: surprises past: surprised ing: surprising participle: surprised
base: surround +s: surrounds past: surrounded ing: surrounding participle: surrounded
base: suspect +s: suspects past: suspected ing: suspecting participle: suspected
base: swallow +s: swallows past: swallowed ing: swallowing participle: swallowed
base: swear +s: swears past: swore ing: swearing participle: sworn
base: sweep +s: sweeps past: swept ing: sweeping participle: swept
base: swell +s: swells past: swelled ing: swelling participle: swollen
base: swim +s: swims past: swam ing: swimming participle: swum
base: swing +s: swings past: swung ing: swinging participle: swung
base: take +s: takes past: took ing: taking participle: taken
base: talk +s: talks past: talked ing: talking participle: talked
base: taste +s: tastes past: tasted ing: tasting participle: tasted
base: teach +s: teaches past: taught ing: teaching participle: taught
base: tear +s: tears past: tore ing: tearing participle: torn
base: tell +s: tells past: told ing: telling participle: told
base: tempt +s: tempts past: tempted ing: tempting participle: tempted
base: tend +s: tends past: tended ing: tending participle: tended
base: test +s: tests past: tested ing: testing participle: tested
base: think +s: thinks past: thought ing: thinking participle: thought
base: throw +s: throws past: threw ing: throwing participle: thrown
base: tickle +s: tickles past: tickled ing: tickling participle: tickled
base: tie +s: ties past: tied ing: tying participle: tied
base: touch +s: touches past: touched ing: touching participle: touched
base: train +s: trains past: trained ing: training participle: trained
base: travel +s: travels past: traveled ing: traveling participle: traveled
base: tremble +s: trembles past: trembled ing: trembling participle: trembled
base: trick +s: tricks past: tricked ing: tricking participle: tricked
base: trust +s: trusts past: trusted ing: trusting participle: trusted
base: try +s: tries past: tried ing: trying participle: tried
base: turn +s: turns past: turned ing: turning participle: turned
base: understand +s: understands past: understood ing: understanding participle: understood
base: undertake +s: undertakes past: undertook ing: undertaking participle: undertaken
base: uphold +s: upholds past: upheld ing: upholding participle: upheld
base: upset +s: upsets past: upset ing: upsetting participle: upset
base: urge +s: urges past: urged ing: urging participle: urged
base: use +s: uses past: used ing: using participle: used
base: vary +s: varies past: varied ing: varying participle: varied
base: visit +s: visits past: visited ing: visiting participle: visited
base: visualize +s: visualizes past: visualized ing: visualizing participle: visualized
base: vote +s: votes past: voted ing: voting participle: voted
base: wait +s: waits past: waited ing: waiting participle: waited
base: wake +s: wakes past: woke ing: waking participle: waked
base: walk +s: walks past: walked ing: walking participle: walked
base: wander +s: wanders past: wandered ing: wandering participle: wandered
base: want +s: wants past: wanted ing: wanting participle: wanted
base: warn +s: warns past: warned ing: warning participle: warned
base: wash +s: washes past: washed ing: washing participle: washed
base: waste +s: wastes past: wasted ing: wasting participle: wasted
base: watch +s: watches past: watched ing: watching participle: watched
base: wave +s: waves past: waved ing: waving participle: waved
base: wear +s: wears past: wore ing: wearing participle: worn
base: weave +s: weaves past: wove ing: weaving participle: woven
base: weep +s: weeps past: wept ing: weeping participle: wept
base: wet +s: wets past: wet ing: wetting participle: wet
base: whirl +s: whirls past: whirled ing: whirling participle: whirled
base: whisper +s: whispers past: whispered ing: whispering participle: whispered
base: whistle +s: whistles past: whistled ing: whistling participle: whistled
base: win +s: wins past: won ing: winning participle: won
base: wind +s: winds past: wound ing: winding participle: wound
base: wipe +s: wipes past: wiped ing: wiping participle: wiped
base: wish +s: wishes past: wished ing: wishing participle: wished
base: withdraw +s: withdraws past: withdrew ing: withdrawing participle: withdrawn
base: withhold +s: withholds past: withheld ing: withholding participle: withheld
base: withstand +s: withstands past: withstood ing: withstanding participle: withstood
base: wonder +s: wonders past: wondered ing: wondering participle: wondered
base: work +s: works past: worked ing: working participle: worked
base: wound +s: wounds past: wounded ing: wounding participle: wounded
base: wring +s: wrings past: wrung ing: wringing participle: wrung
base: write +s: writes past: wrote ing: writing participle: written
base: yearn +s: yearns past: yearned ing: yearning participle: yearned
base: yell +s: yells past: yelled ing: yelling participle: yelled
base: yield +s: yields past: yielded ing: yielding participle: yielded
base: zap +s: zaps past: zapped ing: zapping participle: zapped
base: zigzag +s: zigzags past: zigzagged ing: zigzagging participle: zigzagged
base: zip +s: zips past: zipped ing: zipping participle: zipped

Verbs A-L

A. English verbs can be divided into two groups based on the number of forms.

1. Be has eight forms (see Auxiliary Verbs).

2. All other English verbs have five forms (see the list of common English verbs below).

base (sometimes called the simple or bare infinitive form)

+s

past

ing (traditionally called the present participle)

participle (traditionally called the past participle)

B. Functions of the five verb forms (all verbs except be):

1. The base form has functions both with and without tense.

a. With tense: The base form is the simple present tense form in statements when the subject is I, we, you, they, or any plural.

b. Without tense: The base form is used:

1. in simple present and simple past tense verb phrases when the tense is on the auxiliary do (that is, in questions and negatives) no matter what the subject is;

2. in verb phrases which contain any of the modal, phrasal modal, or modal-like auxiliaries (see Modal Auxiliaries) no matter what the subject is;

3. with to to make infinitives.

2. The +s form has only one function. It is the present tense form in statements when the subject is he, she, it, or any singular other than I or you.

3. The past form has only one function. It is the past tense form in statements no matter what the subject is.

4. The ing form has no tense. It has three functions:

a. It is the main verb in continuous verb phrases.

b. It can be a noun. (It is called a gerund when it functions as a noun.)

c. It can be a modifier.

5. The participle form has no tense. It has two functions:

a. It is the main verb in perfect and passive verb phrases.

b. It can be a modifier.

C. Below is a list of the five forms of some common English verbs. Also see Verbs M-Z.

base: accept +s: accepts past: accepted ing: accepting participle: accepted
base: accuse +s: accuses past: accused ing: accusing participle: accused
base: act +s: acts past: acted ing: acting participle: acted
base: add +s: adds past: added ing: adding participle: added
base: admit +s: admits past: admitted ing: admitting participle: admitted
base: advertise +s: advertises past: advertised ing: advertising participle: advertised
base: advise +s: advises past: advised ing: advising participle: advised
base: affect +s: affects past: affected ing: affecting participle: affected
base: afford +s: affords past: afforded ing: affording participle: afforded
base: agree +s: agrees past: agreed ing: agreeing participle: agreed
base: allow +s: allows past: allowed ing: allowing participle: allowed
base: analyze +s: analyzes past: analyzed ing: analyzing participle: analyzed
base: announce +s: announces past: announced ing: announcing participle: announced
base: answer +s: answers past: answered ing: answering participle: answered
base: appear +s: appears past: appeared ing: appearing participle: appeared
base: apply +s: applies past: applied ing: applying participle: applied
base: appoint +s: appoints past: appointed ing: appointing participle: appointed
base: appreciate +s: appreciates past: appreciated ing: appreciating participle: appreciated
base: argue +s: argues past: argued ing: arguing participle: argued
base: arise +s: arises past: arose ing: arising participle: arisen
base: arouse +s: arouses past: aroused ing: arousing participle: aroused
base: arrange +s: arranges past: arranged ing: arranging participle: arranged
base: arrest +s: arrests past: arrested ing: arresting participle: arrested
base: arrive +s: arrives past: arrived ing: arriving participle: arrived
base: ask +s: asks past: asked ing: asking participle: asked
base: assign +s: assigns past: assigned ing: assigning participle: assigned
base: assist +s: assists past: assisted ing: assisting participle: assisted
base: attempt +s: attempts past: attempted ing: attempting participle: attempted
base: avoid +s: avoids past: avoided ing: avoiding participle: avoided
base: bake +s: bakes past: baked ing: baking participle: baked
base: bark +s: barks past: barked ing: barking participle: barked
base: bear +s: bears past: bore ing: bearing participle: born
base: beat +s: beats past: beat ing: beating participle: beaten
base: become +s: becomes past: became ing: becoming participle: become
base: beg +s: begs past: begged ing: begging participle: begged
base: begin +s: begins past: began ing: beginning participle: begun
base: bend +s: bends past: bent ing: bending participle: bent
base: bet +s: bets past: bet ing: betting participle: bet
base: bid +s: bids past: bid ing: bidding participle: bid
base: bind +s: binds past: bound ing: binding participle: bound
base: bite +s: bites past: bit ing: biting participle: bitten
base: bleed +s: bleeds past: bled ing: bleeding participle: bled
base: blow +s: blows past: blew ing: blowing participle: blown
base: boil +s: boils past: boiled ing: boiling participle: boiled
base: bore +s: bores past: bored ing: boring participle: bored
base: borrow +s: borrows past: borrowed ing: borrowing participle: borrowed
base: bother +s: bothers past: bothered ing: bothering participle: bothered
base: bow +s: bows past: bowed ing: bowing participle: bowed
base: break +s: breaks past: broke ing: breaking participle: broken
base: breathe +s: breathes past: breathed ing: breathing participle: breathed
base: breed +s: breeds past: bred ing: breeding participle: bred
base: bring +s: brings past: brought ing: bringing participle: brought
base: broadcast +s: broadcasts past: broadcast ing: broadcasting participle: broadcast
base: brush +s: brushes past: brushed ing: brushing participle: brushed
base: build +s: builds past: built ing: building participle: built
base: burn +s: burns past: burned ing: burning participle: burned
base: burst +s: bursts past: burst ing: bursting participle: burst
base: buy +s: buys past: bought ing: buying participle: bought
base: calculate +s: calculates past: calculated ing: calculating participle: calculated
base: call +s: calls past: called ing: calling participle: called
base: care +s: cares past: cared ing: caring participle: cared
base: carry +s: carries past: carried ing: carrying participle: carried
base: cash +s: cashes past: cashed ing: cashing participle: cashed
base: cast +s: casts past: cast ing: casting participle: cast
base: catch +s: catches past: caught ing: catching participle: caught
base: cater +s: caters past: catered ing: catering participle: catered
base: cause +s: causes past: caused ing: causing participle: caused
base: change +s: changes past: changed ing: changing participle: changed
base: charge +s: charges past: charged ing: charging participle: charged
base: chase +s: chases past: chased ing: chasing participle: chased
base: chat +s: chats past: chatted ing: chatting participle: chatted
base: cheat +s: cheats past: cheated ing: cheating participle: cheated
base: chew +s: chews past: chewed ing: chewing participle: chewed
base: choose +s: chooses past: chose ing: choosing participle: chosen
base: clean +s: cleans past: cleaned ing: cleaning participle: cleaned
base: climb +s: climbs past: climbed ing: climbing participle: climbed
base: cling +s: clings past: clung ing: clinging participle: clung
base: close +s: closes past: closed ing: closing participle: closed
base: comb +s: combs past: combed ing: combing participle: combed
base: come +s: comes past: came ing: coming participle: come
base: command +s: commands past: commanded ing: commanding participle: commanded
base: compel +s: compels past: compelled ing: compelling participle: compelled
base: confuse +s: confuses past: confused ing: confusing participle: confused
base: consent +s: consents past: consented ing: consenting participle: consented
base: consider +s: considers past: considered ing: considering participle: considered
base: continue +s: continues past: continued ing: continuing participle: continued
base: control +s: controls past: controlled ing: controlling participle: controlled
base: cook +s: cooks past: cooked ing: cooking participle: cooked
base: cost +s: costs past: cost ing: costing participle: cost
base: cough +s: coughs past: coughed ing: coughing participle: coughed
base: count +s: counts past: counted ing: counting participle: counted
base: cower +s: cowers past: cowered ing: cowering participle: cowered
base: crash +s: crashes past: crashed ing: crashing participle: crashed
base: creep +s: creeps past: crept ing: creeping participle: crept
base: cruise +s: cruises past: cruised ing: cruising participle: cruised
base: cry +s: cries past: cried ing: crying participle: cried
base: cut +s: cuts past: cut ing: cutting participle: cut
base: dance +s: dances past: danced ing: dancing participle: danced
base: dare +s: dares past: dared ing: daring participle: dared
base: date +s: dates past: dated ing: dating participle: dated
base: deal +s: deals past: dealt ing: dealing participle: dealt
base: decide +s: decides past: decided ing: deciding participle: decided
base: declare +s: declares past: declared ing: declaring participle: declared
base: defend +s: defends past: defended ing: defending participle: defended
base: defer +s: defers past: deferred ing: deferring participle: deferred
base: deny +s: denies past: denied ing: denying participle: denied
base: depend +s: depends past: depended ing: depending participle: depended
base: deposit +s: deposits past: deposited ing: depositing participle: deposited
base: describe +s: describes past: described ing: describing participle: described
base: deserve +s: deserves past: deserved ing: deserving participle: deserved
base: despise +s: despises past: despised ing: despising participle: despised
base: deter +s: deters past: deterred ing: deterring participle: deterred
base: determine +s: determines past: determined ing: determining participle: determined
base: die +s: dies past: died ing: dying participle: died
base: dig +s: digs past: dug ing: digging participle: dug
base: discover +s: discovers past: discovered ing: discovering participle: discovered
base: dislike +s: dislikes past: disliked ing: disliking participle: disliked
base: dive +s: dives past: dove ing: diving participle: dived
base: divide +s: divides past: divided ing: dividing participle: divided
base: do +s: does past: did ing: doing participle: done
base: draw +s: draws past: drew ing: drawing participle: drawn
base: dream +s: dreams past: dreamed ing: dreaming participle: dreamed
base: dress +s: dresses past: dressed ing: dressing participle: dressed
base: drink +s: drinks past: drank ing: drinking participle: drunk
base: drive +s: drives past: drove ing: driving participle: driven
base: dye +s: dyes past: dyed ing: dyeing participle: dyed
base: eat +s: eats past: ate ing: eating participle: eaten
base: enjoy +s: enjoys past: enjoyed ing: enjoying participle: enjoyed
base: enter +s: enters past: entered ing: entering participle: entered
base: entertain +s: entertains past: entertained ing: entertaining participle: entertained
base: erase +s: erases past: erased ing: erasing participle: erased
base: escape +s: escapes past: escaped ing: escaping participle: escaped
base: examine +s: examines past: examined ing: examining participle: examined
base: excite +s: excites past: excited ing: exciting participle: excited
base: exist +s: exists past: existed ing: existing participle: existed
base: exit +s: exits past: exited ing: exiting participle: exited
base: expect +s: expects past: expected ing: expecting participle: expected
base: explain +s: explains past: explained ing: explaining participle: explained
base: fail +s: fails past: failed ing: failing participle: failed
base: fall +s: falls past: fell ing: falling participle: fallen
base: fear +s: fears past: feared ing: fearing participle: feared
base: feed +s: feeds past: fed ing: feeding participle: fed
base: feel +s: feels past: felt ing: feeling participle: felt
base: fight +s: fights past: fought ing: fighting participle: fought
base: fill +s: fills past: filled ing: filling participle: filled
base: find +s: finds past: found ing: finding participle: found
base: finish +s: finishes past: finished ing: finishing participle: finished
base: fit +s: fits past: fit ing: fitting participle: fit
base: fix +s: fixes past: fixed ing: fixing participle: fixed
base: flee +s: flees past: fled ing: fleeing participle: fled
base: fling +s: flings past: flung ing: flinging participle: flung
base: fly +s: flies past: flew ing: flying participle: flown
base: follow +s: follows past: followed ing: following participle: followed
base: fool +s: fools past: fooled ing: fooling participle: fooled
base: forbid +s: forbids past: forbade ing: forbidding participle: forbidden
base: force +s: forces past: forced ing: forcing participle: forced
base: forget +s: forgets past: forgot ing: forgetting participle: forgotten
base: forgive +s: forgives past: forgave ing: forgiving participle: forgiven
base: found +s: founds past: founded ing: founding participle: founded
base: freeze +s: freezes past: froze ing: freezing participle: frozen
base: frighten +s: frightens past: frightened ing: frightening participle: frightened
base: fry +s: fries past: fried ing: frying participle: fried
base: get +s: gets past: got ing: getting participle: gotten
base: give +s: gives past: gave ing: giving participle: given
base: glimmer +s: glimmers past: glimmered ing: glimmering participle: glimmered
base: glitter +s: glitters past: glittered ing: glittering participle: glittered
base: gnaw +s: gnaws past: gnawed ing: gnawing participle: gnawed
base: go +s: goes past: went ing: going participle: gone
base: grind +s: grinds past: ground ing: rinding participle: ground
base: grow +s: grows past: grew ing: growing participle: grown
base: guess +s: guesses past: guessed ing: guessing participle: guessed
base: hang +s: hangs past: hanged ing: hanging participle: hanged
base: hang +s: hangs past: hung ing: hanging participle: hung
base: happen +s: happens past: happened ing: happening participle: happened
base: hate +s: hates past: hated ing: hating participle: hated
base: have +s: has past: had ing: having participle: had
base: hear +s: hears past: heard ing: hearing participle: heard
base: heat +s: heats past: heated ing: heating participle: heated
base: help +s: helps past: helped ing: helping participle: helped
base: hesitate +s: hesitates past: hesitated ing: hesitating participle: hesitated
base: hide +s: hides past: hid ing: hiding participle: hidden
base: hike +s: hikes past: hiked ing: hiking participle: hiked
base: hire +s: hires past: hired ing: hiring participle: hired
base: hit +s: hits past: hit ing: hitting participle: hit
base: hold +s: holds past: held ing: holding participle: held
base: hope +s: hopes past: hoped ing: hoping participle: hoped
base: hover +s: hovers past: hovered ing: hovering participle: hovered
base: hunt +s: hunts past: hunted ing: hunting participle: hunted
base: hurt +s: hurts past: hurt ing: hurting participle: hurt
base: imagine +s: imagines past: imagined ing: imagining participle: imagined
base: imitate +s: imitates past: imitated ing: imitating participle: imitated
base: imply +s: implies past: implied ing: implying participle: implied
base: improve +s: improves past: improved ing: improving participle: improved
base: infer +s: infers past: inferred ing: inferring participle: inferred
base: inform +s: informs past: informed ing: informing participle: informed
base: injure +s: injures past: injured ing: injuring participle: injured
base: insist +s: insists past: insisted ing: insisting participle: insisted
base: instruct +s: instructs past: instructed ing: instructing participle: instructed
base: intend +s: intends past: intended ing: intending participle: intended
base: introduce +s: introduces past: introduced ing: introducing participle: introduced
base: invent +s: invents past: invented ing: inventing participle: invented
base: invite +s: invites past: invited ing: inviting participle: invited
base: jam +s: jams past: jammed ing: jamming participle: jammed
base: jerk +s: jerks past: jerked ing: jerking participle: jerked
base: jingle +s: jingles past: jingled ing: jingling participle: jingled
base: jog +s: jogs past: jogged ing: jogging participle: jogged
base: join +s: joins past: joined ing: joining participle: joined
base: joke +s: jokes past: joked ing: joking participle: joked
base: jolt +s: jolts past: jolted ing: jolting participle: jolted
base: judge +s: judges past: judged ing: judging participle: judged
base: juggle +s: juggles past: juggled ing: juggling participle: juggled
base: jump +s: jumps past: jumped ing: jumping participle: jumped
base: keep +s: keeps past: kept ing: keeping participle: kept
base: kill +s: kills past: killed ing: killing participle: killed
base: kneel +s: kneels past: knelt ing: kneeling participle: knelt
base: knock +s: knocks past: knocked ing: knocking participle: knocked
base: know +s: knows past: knew ing: knowing participle: known
base: land +s: lands past: landed ing: landing participle: landed
base: laugh +s: laughs past: laughed ing: laughing participle: laughed
base: lay +s: lays past: laid ing: laying participle: laid
base: lead +s: leads past: led ing: leading participle: led
base: leap +s: leaps past: leaped ing: leaping participle: leaped
base: learn +s: learns past: learned ing: learning participle: learned
base: lease +s: leases past: leased ing: leasing participle: leased
base: leave +s: leaves past: left ing: leaving participle: left
base: lend +s: lends past: lent ing: lending participle: lent
base: let +s: lets past: let ing: letting participle: let
base: lie +s: lies past: lay ing: lying participle: lain
base: lie +s: lies past: lied ing: lying participle: lied
base: lift +s: lifts past: lifted ing: lifting participle: lifted
base: light +s: lights past: lit ing: lighting participle: lit
base: like +s: likes past: liked ing: liking participle: liked
base: liquefy +s: liquefies past: liquefied ing: liquefying participle: liquefied
base: listen +s: listens past: listened ing: listening participle: listened
base: live +s: lives past: lived ing: living participle: lived
base: loan +s: loans past: loaned ing: loaning participle: loaned
base: look +s: looks past: looked ing: looking participle: looked
base: lose +s: loses past: lost ing: losing participle: lost
base: love +s: loves past: loved ing: loving participle: loved

Every Human Being MUST watch this video

Nick Vujicic and his attitude serve as a great examples of the celebration of life over limitations.

The human spirit can handle much more than we realize.

"I LOVE LIVING LIFE. I AM HAPPY."... See More

----------------------------------------------------------------

Think you've got it bad?
Need some encouragement?
Fallen down?
Can't find the STRENGTH to get back up?

Watch this video. It will help. Then share it with others.

----------------------------------------------------------------

"If I fail, I try again, and again, and again..."
If YOU fail, are YOU going to try again?

It matters how you're going to FINISH...
Are you going to finish STRONG?

We are put in situations to build our character... not destroy us.

The tensions in our life are there to strengthen our convictions... not to run over us.

----------------------------------------------------------------

Nick is thankful for what he HAS.
He's not bitter for what he does NOT have.

I have never met a bitter person who was thankful.
I have never met a thankful person who was bitter.

In life you have a choice: Bitter or BETTER?

...........................

yes this is not the End!! Never GIVE UP


never-give-up

By JIBI THOMAS

How configure multiple skype


Skype has added a new switch for supporting multiple users on a single PC. The following steps would show how to create a new shortcut for starting a new Skype instance with a different Skype user account.

  • Open Windows Explorer and go to "C:\Program Files\Skype\Phone."
  • Right click on the Skype icon and select "Create Shortcut."
  • Right click on the new shortcut and select "Properties."
  • Apply " /secondary" to "Target" to become '"C:\Program Files\Skype\Phone\Skype.exe" /secondary.'
  • Click OK to save the change.
  • Give the new shortcut a new name and move it to anywhere you desired.
  • When you click on this new shortcut, a new Skype window will appear and you can log on using another Skype account.
Simple know!!! Hope it Helped


ya Make a skype call, i am there -> jibinclt

Hidden SKYPE Emoticons and Skype Smileys

I love GOA

I love GOA

Akkarakazhchakal

HoLlYwOoD MoViEs

HoLlYwOoD MoViEs
HoLlYwOoD MoViEs

All Rights Received (JIBI THOMAS)

█║▌│█│║▌║││█║║█
█║▌│█│║▌║││█║║█
█║▌│█│║▌║││█║║█
Copyright © 2010